131.Cacharpaya / Chile

Cacharpaya is a collective dance in a line taken by the hand. In some places it is dance by mixed couples, taken from the arm, always keeping snail figures, circles and meandering shapes. It belongs to the family of the Huayno, derived from Quechua waiñu (Inca Culture). It is very probable that its origin is pre-Columbian. It is preferably danced in valleys, foothills and altiplano of the I and II region (Tarapacá and Antofagasta).


132.Cachimbo / Chile

Cachimbo is a Chilean dance from the northern area of towns and streams. It is danced as a couple, with a man and a woman and an individual with a handkerchief. The instrumental accompaniment includes the zampoña, piano, guitar, violin, mandolin and banyo in multiple groups, depending on the occasion on which they dance. Nowadays, bands of aerophones predominate: trumpets, flutes, tubas, saxophones and others with drum, box and cymbal percussion.



CAJUN JIG called also Cajun One Step is among the simplest of Cajun dance forms. It has only one basic step. It was popular in Louisiana in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but remains a mainstay of dancers. Often, this step pattern is alternated with other styles, during a single song, particularly among those who are regular dancers, in urban and non-traditional settings, or those who are also Zydeco dancers. Cajun Jig is danced fast or slow. Despite the single-like step, variations of the handhold combined with turns give the dance infinite dance move options. The dancers’ handholds can be uncrossed (i.e., the right hand of one partner meets the left hand of the other one and vice versa) or crossed (i.e., joined right hands over left, or left over right).


134.Calypso / Trinidad and Tobago

Calypso is a Caribbean dance performed to traditional Calypso music. The name comes from the sea nymph who kept Odysseus trapped on her island for seven years. This dance is an interpretation of what a sea nymph would look like if she were trying to entice her prisoner and make him fall in love with her. The dance is similar to the Rumba and is danced to a 32-count beat. A drum is usually used for music and beat. Calypso involves rocking side to side, back and forth, twirling, moving hips back and forth, swinging arms, clapping hands and snapping fingers. Movements are repeated over and over several times, until the song is over. The steel drums are often the musical instrument of choice for the Calypso dance.


135.Candombe / Uruguay

Candombe is an Uruguayan music and dance that comes from African slaves. It is considered an important aspect of the culture of Uruguay and was recognised by UNESCO as a World Cultural Heritage of humanity. To a lesser extent, Candombe is practiced in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In Argentina, it can be found in Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Paraná, and Corrientes. In Paraguay is continued this tradition in Kamba Kua (Camba Cua) in Fernando de la Mora near to Asuncion. Also in Brazil, it still retains its religious character and can be found in Minas Gerais State. This Uruguayan music style is based on three different drums: chico, repique and piano. This music style is usually played in February during carnival in Montevideo, Uruguay at dance parades called "Llamadas" and "Desfile Innaugural del Carnaval”.


136.Caporales / Bolivia

Caporales is a folkloric dance of Bolivian origin, which was recreated and presented to the public for the first time in 1969 by the Estrada brothers, who were inspired by the character of the Caporal de la saya, Afro-Bolivian dance that belongs to the region of the Yungas-Bolivia.

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137. CAR DANCING / Global

CAR DANCING is an Internet trend that has inspired drivers all over the world to jump out of moving vehicles and dance in the street while a friend in the passenger seat films them. It became especially popular with a dance challange called #InMyFeelings or #Keke. Car dancing is also a dance style of freestyle dancing while sitting in a car.


138.Čardáš / Hungary / Slovakia

Čardáš is a traditional Hungarian folk dance. Originated in Hungary, it was popularised by Romani music bands in Hungary and neighbouring lands of Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Burgenland, Croatia, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Transylvania and Moravia, as well as among the Banat Bulgarians, including those in Bulgaria. It is a couple twisted dance which was developed at the first half of the 19th century. Dancing pair most often holds each other in the waist, sometimes holds hands and it is also possible to dance alone. Čardáš has different speed and it consists of two parts: slow and fast. Slow part is typically two-step to the side, while fast part is a twist with fast jumps. Čardáš is especially widespread in Slovakia in all forms.


139.Carnavalera / Chile

Carnavalera is a dance created by schools of carnival dance. The carnival school Chinchintirapié is interested and willing to create and learn from the culture of the mythical Chinchinero and the trades that are combined in the carnival, such as the dancers, costumes figures and musicians. The musical idea started from the Chinchín as a base drum, from where its rhythms and sound are taken to build on.

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140.Çayda Çıra / Turkey

Çayda Çıra is a Turkish dance called Candle Dance and it is performed with candles. Long ago in the city of Elazig, a groom's party set out to meet the bride's party. They came upon a creek and had to get across. As they were crossing, a solar eclipse occurred and the sky grew dark. The people in the party lit small twigs to mark their path across the creek. The sight of the burning twigs across the creek at dusk inspired the folk song: "the twigs are burning in the creek” A Candle Dance envelopes and revolves around themes such as; love, lovers, a bride, a groom, unrequited affections, a river, reflections, death, an eclipsed moon, and a party.

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141.céilí Dance / Ireland

céilí Dance is the native group dancing of Ireland and is danced to traditional Irish music. Some of our céilí dances can be traced back to the 1500s. Most céilí dances are danced to reels or jigs. Some are danced to single jigs and some sections of The Three Tunes are danced to hornpipes. It varies widely throughout Ireland and the rest of the world. It may be performed with as few as two people and as many as sixteen. Some dances are performed by a line of men facing a line of women (Haymakers Jig, Rince Fada, etc.) while others ore performed by any number of couples in a circle (Rince Mór). It may also be danced with an unlimited number of couples in a long line or proceeding around in a circle.


142.Ceilidh / Scotland / Ireland

Ceilidh is a traditional Scottish or Irish social gathering. In its most basic form, it simply means a social visit. In contemporary usage, it usually involves playing Gaelic folk music and dancing, either at a house party or a larger concert at a social hall or other community gathering place.


143.Cha-Cha-CHA / Global

Cha-Cha-CHA is a dance of Cuban origin. It is danced to the music of the same name introduced by Cuban composer and violinist Enrique Jorrin in the early 1950s. Its rhythm was developed from the danzón-mambo. The name is an onomatopoeia derived from the shuffling sound of the dancers' feet. It is danced to authentic Cuban music, although in ballroom competitions it is often danced to Latin Pop or Latin Rock. Styles of cha-cha-cha dance may differ in the place of the chasse in the rhythmical structure. The original Cuban and the ballroom cha-cha count is "two, three, chachacha", "four-and-one, two, three" or "one, two, three, chacha". The dance does not start on the first beat of a bar, though it can start with a transfer of weight to the lead's right.

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144.Chadzunda Nyau / Malawi

Chadzunda Nyau is a traditional ritual cult dance from Kasungu in Malawi which was performed by Members of the Nyau brotherhood, which was a secret society of initiated men.


145.Chhau / India

Chhau dance is a semi classical Indian dance with martial, tribal and folk origins from the eastern Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Odisha. It is found in three styles named after the location where they are performed, i.e., the Purulia Chhau of Bengal, the Seraikella Chhau of Jharkhand, and the Mayurbhanj Chhau of Odisha. The Purulia Chhau uses extensive masks shaped in the form of the character being played; for example, a lion character has a face mask of lion and body costumes too with the actor walking on all fours. These masks are crafted by potters who make clay images of Hindu gods and goddesses and is primarily sourced from the Purulia district of West Bengal.

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146.Chair Dance / Global

Chair Dance is a favourite of burlesque and cabaret dance where the dancer is introduced to the chair as dance partner


147.Chalga / Bulgaria

Chalga, often referred to as pop-folk, is a Bulgarian music and dance genre. It is essentially a folk-inspired dance music genre, with a blend of Bulgarian music (Bulgarian ethno-pop) and also primary influences from Greek, Turkish, Arabic, Romani and Albanian music.


148.Champeta / Colombia

Champeta s a genre of folk music and dance originating in the Atlantic coastal regions of Colombia in the early 70’s. Originated among inhabitants of African descent in the Caribbean coast as a unique urban genre, bred in the slums of Barranquilla, Cartagena and San Basilio de Palenque. Early on Champeta was the music of thugs, a vulgar expression however it was a dance revolution that was brewing.The music itself is loud, with a heavy bass. With hints of reggaeton and rap. At its roots it is distinctly polyrhythmic, similar to jazz or funk.

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149.Chang Lo / India

Chang Lo dance is performed by Chang tribe of Nagaland, India. They perform the dance to celebrate their victory against enemies. It is a three-day festival where different forms of theatre and performing arts are performed.


150.Chango / Cuba

Chango is one of the Orisha dances. Chango is the king of drumming, dance and fire. Chango is also the Orisha of masculinity and male energy. He is the only Orisha to have experienced death. Chango is very relatable to worshipers due to his human qualities and numerous flaws such as over indulging in women, drink and partying. In dance, Chango wields his wooden axe and rains fire and lightning from heaven to devastating effect. Chango eventually matures into a graceful ruler, teaching us that we can all redeem ourselves after a lifetime of mistakes and bad decisions.

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151.Character dance / Global

Character dance is a specific subdivision of classical dance. It is the stylised representation of a traditional folk or national dance, mostly from European countries, and uses movements and music which have been adapted for the theatre.



CHARLESTON is a dance especially popular in 1920s America, as a fast-paced and strongly syncopated dance (i.e., emphasising unstressed musical beats with the steps and movements). Its name derived from Charleston in South Carolina, and although it is usually danced by two or more people, it was originally a solo dance performed by African-Americans. Charleston was accepted as a ballroom dance in 1926, with Josephine Baker being one of its most celebrated performers.

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153.Charya Nritya / Nepal

Charya Nritya is a meditation, a vehicle of bodily and spiritual transformation, and an opportunity for audiences to experience a vision of divine beauty. A Sanskrit term translatable as “dance as a spiritual discipline,” Charya Nritya is a moving mediation, tailored to specific deities, which enables the dancer to fully become the deity in body, speech, and mind, in order to benefit all beings. This dance has been performed by the Newar priests of the Katmandu Valley in Nepal for over 1,000 years.


154.Chavittukali / India

Chavittukali is a highly colourful Christian classical art form of Kerala. It is noted for its attractive make-up of characters, their elaborate costumes, detailed gestures and well-defined body movements presented in tune with the rhythmic playback music and complementary percussion. Chavittu Nadakam is believed to be originated during the 16th century AD. This form of play is prevalent among the Christian community in the districts of Alappuzha, Ernakulam and Thrissur of Kerala. The most sensual blend of cultural influences can be seen in this Christian dance-drama.

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155.Cheerleading / USA / Global

Cheerleading is an activity wherein the participants cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity. It can be performed to motivate sports teams, to entertain the audience, or for competition. Competitive routines typically range anywhere from one to three minutes, and contain components of tumbling, dance, jumps, cheers, and stunting. Cheerleading originated in the United States, and remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. However the practice spread also all around the globe.

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156.Cheraw / India

Cheraw is the most famous ritual dance performed in Mizoram, India. It is characterised by the use of bamboo staves, which are kept in cross and horizontal forms on the ground. While the male dancers move these bamboo staves in rhythmic beats, the female dancers perform by stepping in and out of the bamboo blocks. Recognised as one of the oldest dances of Mizoram, the Cheraw has become an integral part of their almost every festival.


157.chiawa dances / Zambia

chiawa danceS are traditional dance from Chiawa in Zambia. They are often performed by girls, who tie a scarf to their waist as they dance to the rhythm of the drums.



CHICAGO FOOTWORK is a genre of music and street dance that originated in Chicago during the 1990s. The dance involves fast movement of the feet with accompanying twists and turns, and usually takes place as part of a “battle”. The music style has evolved from the earlier, rapid rhythms of juke and ghetto house. Tracks also frequently feature heavily syncopated samples from rap, pop. Footwork also incorporates the club culture cultivated in disco, house and techno. Much like in techno, Footwork is about the “aesthetic of anonymity” but its status as an international genre was boosted by artists like the late DJ Rashad. Sampling is a key part of footwork. Most modern footwork draws on funk and soul basslines through their work.

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159.CHICKEN DANCE / USA / Global

CHICKEN DANCE is a popular rhythm and blues dance started in America in the 1950s, in which the dancers flapped their arms and kicked back their feet in an imitation of a chicken. The dance featured lateral body movements. It was used primarily as a change of pace step while doing the Twist. Chicken dance gained even more popularity when Rufus Thomas wrote “Do the Funky Chicken”, a hit record in 1970. The dance was reintroduced in the United States in 1981 during the Tulsa, Oklahoma Oktoberfest. They wanted to demonstrate their love through dance in costumes, but there were no duck costumes available anywhere near Tulsa. At a local television station, however, a chicken costume was available which was donated for use at the festival, giving the "Chicken Dance" its name.


160.Chikhat / Morocco

Chikhat is not a type of dance but a type of performer. Chikhat is usually performed by female dancers, that can sing, play music, and dance. The type of music and dances performed are region specific, and can be either Amazigh or Arab. In the East of Morocco, this term referred to poets. However, following the French invasion, the Chikhat’s performances became rather synonym of prostitution all around the country. They are also often invited to entertain in women exclusive spaces and events, such as gender segregated wedding parties. Contemporary Chikhat’s performances also play with gender identities, the most common are men transvestite in women’s clothing performing in private or public spaces, or where the most experienced Chikhat performing an alternative definition of femininity in the Moroccan context.

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161.Chilote Rin / Chile

Chilote Rin is a dance of two couples in a room, without handkerchief, danced on the large island of Chiloé, south of Chile, where it arrived in the nineteenth century probably directly from Europe, since in France there is a similar dance known like the Parisian Bourré. Of eminently recreational function, its music is accompanied by guitar, rabel (which was gradually replaced by the accordion) and bass drum. It was mainly danced in community and family recreational parties.

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162.Chilote waltz / Chile

Chilote waltz is a variant of the waltz, originated in the Tyrol (Austria) by the twelfth century, which reached the aristocratic environments of Chile in the mid-nineteenth century and adapted to the appearance of each region, acquiring a defined and differentiated identity. It is one of the best-known dances of the Chiloé archipelago, south of Chile. This dance considers the characteristics of the typical waltz, in which the man and the woman dance together, but there are more jumps.


163.chilimika / Malawi

chilimika is a dance quite famous in Nkhata-Bay District in Malawi. It is known to instil the spirit of smartness. Chilimika, meaning year, is performed by the young Tonga women in the district. It is, actually, an imitation of malipenga dance which is mostly performed by men.Dancers’ steps, in response to the drumbeat, seem effortless and smart such that the dance fits well with decent dressing. A handkerchief in their hands—possibly, to dust their shoes of dirt, or wipe sweat off their faces—exposes their quest for smartness. At each New Year’s Day, young men and women congregate at the village arena, known as Boma, to entertain the village with chilimika.

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164.chimwemwe / Zambia

chimwemwe is a dance style that started with a song by artists Ma Africa and Drimz titled “Chimwemwe Dance”. Their music video shows the Chimwemwe dance, which gained popularity in Zambia. People started making videos while dancing the Chimwemwe dance and soon it became a dancing trend.

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165.Chinamwali DANCE / Malawi

Chinamwali DANCE is a dance performed by the elder women as an initiation dance for the young girls who have the shift from a girl to a woman. The dance is performed only by initiated women. Chinamwali is a traditional girl initiation process/ceremony practiced in most southern African countries by most cultures, traditionally associated with ethnic groups like the Chewa, Ngoni, Venda, Tonga, Sena, Lomwe and Tambuka, but with the advent of urbanisation and intermarriages the practice has spread to other ethnicities.

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166.Chinchineros DANCE / Chile

Chinchineros DANCE is a dance by an urban street performer in Chile, usually a man or young boy, who plays a bass drum-type percussion instrument with long drumsticks strapped to his back which also involves a rope with a noose tied around the performer's foot to play the cymbals which also form part of this improvised instrument. The Chinchinero often dances with an organillero, street organ player and dances whatever the organillero plays in a given moment.

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167.Chino danceS / Chile

Chino danceS are dances performed by the Chino dance troupes, which are fraternities of musicians and dancers that participate in the popular religious festivities celebrated from the Copiapó to the Aconcagua valleys. Indigenous and mestizo miners, farmers, and fishermen express their faith by dancing to the sound of traditional flutes and drums. This sound, also made by the flutes found in archeological sites, has survived despite 500 years of domination as an expression of indigenous cultural resistance. The term Chino means “servant” in the Quechua tongue, but it was used in Colonial times to refer disparagingly to the indigenous population.


168.Chirmi / India

Chirmi is a folk dance from Rajasthan, India. The dance derives its name from a very famous Rajasthani folk song of the same name, in which a married young girl is singing about climbing on a Chirmi (Jequirity) plant, waiting for her father to come visit her.

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169.CHISAMA DANCE / Zambia

CHISAMA DANCE is a traditional dance from Zambia performed by elderly women. It is part of a cult dance of the Gulewamkulu (Nyau) and it is performed at different occasions: funerals, celebrations and during festivities.

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170.Chitelera / Malawi

Chitelera is a dance from Malawi, mostly performed for entertainment on full-moon nights by young girls, but also used as a form of inter-village competitions. Teams of girls travel to neighbouring villages to see which village has more talented dancers. Girls form cycles as they dance.


171.Chitrali DANCE / India

Chitrali DANCE is a dance originating from Chitral, the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Members of the cultural troupe of Chitral Scouts perform traditional dance from Chitrali during the Shandur Polo Festival.


172.Chobi / Iraq

Chobi is a modern circle dance found in Iraqi music. It is participated by Iraqi Assyrians. The dance is similar to khigga, but it would have more pronounced leg elevation and swaying. Each leg swiftly kicks to the air and repeats. Arms sway forwards and backwards. Songs may usually be in Iraqi Arabic, but a few Assyrian songs such as Teela Teela by Evin Agassi would have this rhythm.


173.Choike / Chile

Choike is a Mapuche dance where the men imitate a Rhea Darwin, a large, flightless ostrich type of bird native to South America. It´s a fertility dance performed in ceremonies.

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174.Choob bazi / Iran

Choob bazi is a chain dance found all over Iran, performed by men with sticks. There are two types of Choob bazi dance styles, the first one is more combative in style, only performed by men (normally only two men, assuming the roles as the attacker and the defender) and does not appear to have a rhythmic pattern, this style is more frequently found in Southwestern Iran. The second style Choob bazi is a circle or line dance with pattern, performed by both sexes and is more of a social dance.


175.Chula / Portugal

Chula is a traditional Portuguese folk dance with a tempo and rhythm marked by a bass drum, a triangle and cymbals. It is native to the Upper Douro. It incorporates singing accompanied by violins, violas, accordions and percussion. Chula was an important influence on the emergence of samba rhythms and Rio Grande do Sul Gaucho dance in Brazil. It is danced in male pairs by stomping and tapping in a sort of dance off between each pair. Traditionally, one dancer challenges the other with difficult steps, and the other dancer responds by repeating those steps and adding his own on, so that the person who forgets the steps first “loses” the dance off. Though chula is now mostly confined to competitions and special events, it is a fascinating dance that is somewhere between flamenco, Irish step dancing, and breakdance-style battles.


176.Chuntaro / Mexico

Chuntaro is a voice that comes from the onomatopoeia of philharmonic origin "chun tachún tachún" that evokes the accompaniment, with guitar or vihuela, in 2/4 or 4/4 time, which marks the rhythm in the court songs rancher. Their mix comes from the cumbia el ballenato and la banda. Origin of chuntaro points to the region of Nuevo Leon in Mexico, but this dance is also practiced by Latin communities in the US.

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177.Cielito Chopi / Paraguay

Cielito Chopi is a dance coming from Paraguay. In the middle of the 19th century, there were great parties of the high society organised in Paraguay. Women dressed in their ample costumes of the time and men in an impeccable suit with a penguin tail. It is said that the dance was started with the Paraguayan Cuadrilla, when the townspeople appreciated the show through the large windows and tried to imitate the choreography of the dance, but could not remember with precision all the choreographic figures of the Cuadrilla that consists of 5 parts and is danced between six couples. So they created this new dance which they called Chopi as the bird that the guaranies baptised in this way due to their peculiar song.


178.Çiftetelli / Turkey

Çiftetelli is a simple and a very popular, favourite dance for all occasions, performed throughout Turkey. It is generally performed by women. However, men can also express their joy of living through body language in harmony with the music.

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179.Çilli Bom / Turkey

Çilli Bom is dance that is a Turkish version of Harlem Shake.

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180.Cimarrona / Costa Rica

Cimarrona is a music and dance style from Costa Rican folklore. The dance is performed by people dressed in complex outfits and masks that originally represented and mocked the Spanish people that came to America.

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181.Circassian Dance / North Caucasus

Circassian Dance is a dance typical for the Circassian communities. Dancing culture is very important for them and the national dances evoke the imaginary of the combat and courtship of the people. Circassian dances share some common traits with ballet: men dance on the tips of their toes wearing special leather boots, while women move very lightly, gliding across the floor without moving their heads or upper body.

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182.Circle Dance / Global

Circle Dance called also a chain dance, is a style of dance done in a circle or semicircle to musical accompaniment, such as rhythm instruments and singing. Circle dancing is probably the oldest known dance formation and was part of community life from when people first started to dance. Dancing in a circle is an ancient tradition common to many cultures for marking special occasions, rituals, strengthening community and encouraging togetherness. The dance can also be enjoyed as an uplifting group experience or as part of a meditation. Circle dances are choreographed to many different styles of music and rhythms.


183.CLASSICAL DANCE / Bangladesh

CLASSICAL DANCE in Bangladesh has been influenced by other prevalent classical forms of music and dances of the Indian subcontinent and, accordingly, show some influenced dance forms like Bharatnatyam and Kathak. Several dancing styles in vogue in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent, like Manipuri and Santhali dances, are practised.


184.CLASSICAL DANCE / Cambodia

CLASSICAL DANCE in Cambodia takes its premier performing art form is the Khmer classical dance or “Robam Preah Reach Trop”, a highly stylised dance form originating from the royal courts. Performances of classical dance consist of elaborately costumed dancers and music played by a pinpeat ensemble. It is performed for invocation of deities and spirits as well as to pay homage to royalty and guests. In the mid-20th century, it was introduced to the general public and became widely celebrated as iconic of Cambodian culture, often being performed during public events, holidays, and for tourists visiting Cambodia. Two of the most performed classical dance are the Robam Chuon Por ("Wishing dance") and the Robam Tep Apsara ("Apsara dance").



CLASSICAL DANCE in China was stablished on the foundation of the five-thousand-year-old, vast Chinese culture and it is one branch of the arts that uses the body as a performance medium. The movements of classical Chinese dance are rich in their ability to express a variety of feelings and the original forms of many dance movements were similar to those of martial arts. It is divided into two categories. One category is based upon the warrior exercises of Chinese warriors. The other is based on Confucian etiquette and ritual dances. The second form evolved over time to turn into today’s dance. The history date back to the Quin Dynasty of 220BC, where images of dancers in temple rituals were seen in artwork on pottery. Each following dynasty had their specific moves that they incorporated into their ritual dances.



CLASSICAL DANCE, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles, whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra. There are eight types of Classical Indian dance: Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu), Kathak (North, West and Central India), Kathakali (Kerala), Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh), Odissi (Odisha), Manipuri (Manipur), Mohiniyattam (Kerala), and Sattriya (Assam).

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187.Clog Dancing / England

Clog Dancing is a form of step dance characterised by the wearing of inflexible, wooden soled clogs. Clog dancing developed into its most intricate form in the north of England, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Durham and the Lake District. The main focus and skill of a step dancer is in the footwork: dancers can create many different types of sound using their feet alone. Clog dancing was often performed very casually, people would dance at home, in the pubs or in the street. The upper part of the body was kept motionless so it required little space.

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CLOGGEN is a type of folk dance in which the dancer’s footwear is used percussively by striking the heel, the toe, or both against a floor or each other to create audible rhythms, usually to the downbeat with the heel keeping the rhythm. The dance style has recently fused with others African-American rhythms and the Peruvian dance Zapateo, resulting in the birth of newer street dances, such as Tap, Locking, Jump, Hakken, Stomping, Gangsta Walking, and the Candy Walk dance. The use of wooden-soled clogs is rarer in the more modern dances since clog shoes are not commonly worn in urban society, and other types of footwear have replaced them in their evolved dance forms. Cloggen is often considered the first form of street dance because it evolved in urban environments during the industrial revolution.

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189.Coast Salish Dance / Canada

Coast Salish Dance is a dance performed by the Coast Salish people, indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, living in British Columbia, Canada and the US They believe in expressing themselves through dances, masks, or ceremonies through spirit powers that they are given. Spirit powers define a communities success through leadership, healing, or artistry. Spirit dancing ceremonies are common gatherings during the winter for members of the community to show their spirit powers through song, or dance.

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190.Čoček / Balkans

Čoček is a musical genre and dance that emerged in the Balkans during the early 19th century. It features prominently in the repertoire of many Romani brass bands. It originated from Ottoman military bands, which at that time were scattered across the region, mostly throughout Serbia, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia and Romania. That led to the eventual segmentation and wide range of ethnic sub-styles in čoček. It was handed down through the generations, preserved mostly by Roma minorities and was largely practiced at village weddings and banquets. Čoček is especially popular among the Muslim Rom and Albanian populations of Republic of Kosovo, South Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia. When it first came to America in 1956, they performed čoček as a Muslim woman’s dance.



COLLEGIATE SHAG is a partner dance, performed primarily to uptempo swing and pre-swing jazz music. It belongs to the swing family of American dances that arose in the 1920s and 30s. It originated within the African American community of the Carolinas in the 1920s, later spreading across the United States. Because the basic step takes up such a small space, the Shag can also be danced to fast music. The shag is still danced today by swing dance enthusiasts worldwide. The basic step is danced in a face-to-face but offset position. Partners stand close, with the lead’s right hand positioned on the follow’s back. The follow’s left arm then rests either on the lead’s shoulder or draped around his neck. Step is defined as a weight shift to the opposite foot while hopping.


192.CONGA / Cuba

CONGA refers to the music groups within Cuban comparsas and the music they play. Comparsas are large ensembles of musicians, singers and dancers with a specific costume and choreography which perform in the street carnivals of Santiago de Cuba and Havana. Conga is danced with small sliding steps, advancing alternately. If the right foot starts on the first eighth note of the first measure, then the left foot steps on the third eighth note of the first measure, the right again on the first eighth note of the second measure, the left on the third eighth note of the second measure, and so on. This basic step is called the "arrollao." The arms are bent at the elbow and swung opposite to the rhythm of the feet.



CONTACT IMPROVISATION is a dance form that evolves from spontaneous communication between moving bodies in physical contact. Touch, weight, momentum, balance, and flow give it a continuously emerging shape.


194.Contemporary Dance / Global

Contemporary Dance is a style of dance performance that developed during the mid twentieth century and has since grown to become one of the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the world, especially the Western world, US with particularly strong popularity in the US and Europe. Although originally informed by and borrowing from classical, modern, and jazz styles, it has since come to incorporate elements from many styles of dance. Due to its technical similarities, it is often perceived to be closely related to modern dance, ballet, and other classical concert dance styles. It is very interpretive in its choreography and often focuses on emotions and storytelling, can be performed barefoot, with pointe shoes, naked, fully clothed, and with or without music. Contemporary dance continues to grow in popularity due, in part, to its accessibility to dancers.

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CONTEMPORARY DANCE of the people of Tibet have strong influence in the traditional culture of the region, kept frozen due to the lack of political freedom and the need to preserve the Tibetan culture. Although electronic beats and instruments were included in the music, the dances are still carrying a strong influence of traditional steps, motion and rhythm.



CONTRA DANCE is a folk dance made up of long lines of couples. With mixed origins from English country dance, Scottish, French dance styles in the 17th century, Contra dance can be found around the world and have much popularity in North America and the United Kingdom. It is a social dance that one can attend without a partner. The dancers form couples, and the couples form sets of two couples in long lines starting from the stage and going down the length of the dance hall. Couples progress up and down these lines, dancing with each other couple in the line. The dance is led by a caller who teaches the sequence of figures in the dance before the music starts. Callers describe the series of steps called “figures”. It takes 64 beats, after which the pattern is repeated.


197.Contradanza / Peru

Contradanza is the Spanish or Latin American version of the French contredanse, which was a popular international style of music and dance in the eighteenth century, derived from English Country Dance and adopted in the court of France. A dance that represents the opposition of the Andean peoples before the customs imposed during the Viceroyalty. The dancers make fun of the Spanish imposition through this dance. The contradanza was taken to America and there adopted creole forms that still exist in Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Panama and Ecuador.


198.Corridihno / Portugal

Corridihno is a Portuguese dance from Algarve. It is danced with the pairs always embraced, forming a circle, girls inside and the boys outside of it. By rotating the circle the pairs evolve side by side. At a certain time, when the music has a stronger beat, dancers’ feet hit the floor more intensely, stopping the rotation, to resume afterwards. Further away in the dance, the pairs embraced waltz by spinning in the same place. Next the circle starts rotating again always for the right side. It is a very traditional dance in Portugal, very much beloved by the Portuguese people. Besides that it can also be seen performed in the previous Portuguese empire states such a Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, small part of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Macau (China).


199.Country Dance / England

Country Dance is any of a large number of social dances of the British Isles in which couples dance together in a figure or "set", each dancer dancing to his or her partner and each couple dancing to the other couples in the set. A set consists most commonly of two or three couples, sometimes four and rarely five or six. Often dancers follow a "caller" who names each change in the figures.


200.Courier / Russia

Courier is a type of breakdancing that gained popularity in the Soviet Union and Central Asia after it appeared in the Russian movie „Courier“, directed by Karen Shakhnazarov. It became a part of male youth culture and got strongly absorbed by the mainstream culture. Big shopping malls in Kazakstan commissioning the services of semiprofessional dancers to attract young target groups with professionally organised battles. B-boy battles also influenced the way in which people dance at weddings. Its quite common to see two guests (regardless of age, gender and dancing style) battling under applause of the celebrating wedding crowd.

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201.Crip Walk / USA / Global

Crip Walk also known as the C-Walk, is a dance move that originated in the early 1970s by Crip gang members from the South Central Los Angeles area, and has since spread worldwide. It is primarily an act of performing quick and intricate footwork. The rivalry between the Crips and the Bloods spilled over into the world of entertainment, with the adoption of the gang dance by various rappers on the West Coast of the United States, who gave it its name. It involves the movement of one's feet, classically to the spelling of C-R-I-P. It was used by Crips at parties to display affiliation and also after killings to show their signature. MTV declined to broadcast any music videos with the Crip Walk. In early 1990s it became part of a hip-hop dance.


202.Cueca / Chile

Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. In Chile, the cueca holds the status of national dance. In Chile the cueca spread in bars and taverns, which in the 19th century. It is danced with guitar or harp accompaniment, drumming of hands or a tambourine to keep the rhythm, high pitched singing and a unique strumming pattern, where the guitarist strums all of the strings, returning each time with a slap on the guitar body. Dancers wear blue, white, red or black costumes and dresses: men wear huaso's hat, shirts, flannel poncho, riding pants and boots, short jacket, riding boots, and spurs; women flowered dresses. Currently, Cueca is mainly danced in the countryside and performed throughout Chile each year during the national holidays. Cueca tournaments are popular around that time of year.


203.Cumbia / Colombia

Cumbia is a folkloric rhythm and dance which began as a courtship dance practiced among the Indigenous population on the Caribbean coasts of Colombia. Later it mixed with African and European instruments, steps and musical characteristics. By the 1940s it began spreading from the coast to other parts of Colombia alongside other form of music, like porro and vallenato. Originally a working-class populist music, cumbia was frowned upon by the elites. In the late 1940s it was spread to Argentina and to other Latin American countries. It became an extremely popular dance rhythm. Often classified as salsa, it is played in 4/4 time with a heavy beat one and accentuated beats three and four, giving a loping rolling rhythm similar to "riding a horse".

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204.cumbia sonidera / Mexico

cumbia sonidera is a musical genre and dance born in Mexico. It is a fusion between the cumbia of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and the electronic sounds of the DJs of the mid-1990s. Cumbia sonidera is actually most frequently produced in the state of Puebla, where they also have their own sub-subgenre called cumbia poblana. Cumbia sonidera has also spread back down to South America, where countries such as Ecuador and Argentina (who developed cumbia villera from this Mexico City sound) have embraced it.


205.CyberGoth / Global

CyberGoth is a dance performed by a subculture that derives from elements of goth, raver, and rivethead fashion. Unlike traditional goths, Cybergoths primarily listen to electronic music more often than rock music. Cybergoth fashion combines rave, rivethead, and goth fashion, as well as drawing inspiration from other forms of science fiction. A common sign of a Cyber Goth are the neon dreads or gas masks and goggles. Dancing style is with large footsteps, energetic hand movements and aggression. Perhaps more than other types of goths, Cyber Goths will spend a lot of time perfecting their dance moves. They might actually spend a lot of time in front of a mirror before a night out, because they would practice their newest collection of dance moves that they would bring to the club.